Latest revision 21-09-2022


Creation Time

$ \def \hieruit {\quad \Longrightarrow \quad} \def \slechts {\quad \Longleftrightarrow \quad} \def \SP {\quad ; \quad} $ This what we have from Milne's Formula, actually the derivative of it: $$ t-t_0 = (T_0-A)\ln\left(\frac{T-A}{T_0-A}\right) \hieruit \frac{dt}{dT} = \frac{T_0-A}{T-A} $$ Here $t=$ atomic time, $T=$ orbital time, $T_0=t_0=$ gravitational/atomic reference time, which is the "nowadays" timestamp, $A=$ gravitational timestamp corresponding with a beginning (Alpha), at the time when rest mass is created out of nothing. There is no such beginning for atomic time.
There is indeed a discrepancy between atomic time and orbital time, which is exemplified by the existence of Leap Seconds. Atomic clocks will run too fast in the long run. Therefore it is necessary to "stop" them once or twice in a year or so (source of picture = Wikipedia):

Now, by taking a good look at another picture from the Wikipedia reference, we can make an estimate, as follows. Suppose that there is a small but positive discrepancy $\delta$ between atomic time and orbital time - orbital ticks being a bit larger than atomic ticks: $$ \frac{dT}{dt} = 1+\delta = \frac{T-A}{T_0-A} % \hieruit (T_0-A)(1+\delta)=(T-A) \hieruit -A(1+\delta-1)=(T-T_0-T_0\delta) \hieruit -A = \frac{T-T_0}{\delta} - T_0 $$ From the picture we have the following estimates. $$ T \approx 2017 \SP T_0 \approx 1972 \SP \delta \approx 27/\left[\,365 \times 24 \times 3600\times (T-T_0)\,\right] \hieruit \\ -A \approx 2,3(65,201,972) \; \mbox{ B.C.} $$ This value of $\approx - 2.4$ billion years is not a full order of magnitude different from the Age of the universe according to established science, where a Big Bang is assumed at approximately 13.7 billion years ago, or $t \approx -1/H_0$, where $t$ is the Hubble time $\approx - 14.4$ billion years.
Despite of this argumentation, it cannot be denied that the value of $\approx - 2.4$ billion years is much closer to the Age of the Earth $\approx - 4.54$ billion years. In retrospect, that shouldn't be much of a surprise anyway, because Alpha is derived here from orbital behaviour of the earth's rotation. And why should that be closely related to the origin of the universe? Does it mean in general that there might exist several moments of creation instead of one? Six maybe? Up to now, there is nothing in the theory that forbids such a conclusion.

Much better data are obtained, however, from the following Wikipedia reference: $\,\Delta T\,$ (timekeeping). Quote: The value of $\Delta T$ for the start of 1902 is approximately zero; for 2002 it is about 64 seconds. So the Earth's rotations over that century took about 64 seconds longer than would be required for days of atomic time. That's enough information for a decent calculation (with MAPLE):

> delta := 64/(365*24*3600*(2002-1902));
> A := (2002-1902)/delta - 1902;

                           A := 4927498098
Which is a much closer estimate of the Age of the Earth $\approx 4,9(27,498,098)$ B.C. than the previous one, at least when compared with the commonly accepted $4.54$ billion years - please take into account the "about" and "approximately" from the quote.

What we can do with Milne's Formula is not exhausted with the above. Let's take a good look again at the formula that establishes the relationship between orbital time $T$ and atomic time $t$: $$ t - t_0 = (T_0-A)\ln\left(\frac{T-A}{T_0-A}\right) $$ This can be programmed (in Delphi Pascal) and we can perform some experiments.

program scheppen;

Uses Algemeen;

procedure test;
{ Year of Creation }
  A : double = -20000;
{ Year of orbital -> atomic time }
  T0 : double = 1967;
  ta : double; { Atomic time }
  Tg : double; { Orbital time }
  tv : double;
  dag : integer;
  weet : string;
  Writeln('Creation in gravitation time :',-A:8:0,' year B.C.');
  Tg := A; ta := 0; weet := '';
  for dag := 0 to 6 do
    Tg := Tg + 1/365;
    tv := ta;
    ta := t0 + (T0-A)*ln((Tg-A)/(T0-A));
    if ta-tv < 0 then weet := 'eternal'
    else weet := Letterlijk(Round(ta-tv));
    Writeln('year B.C. :',-ta:8:0,'  | years :',
            weet:8,' (end of day ',dag,')');

What can be done is start with the moment of creation $A$(lpha). In the above program Alpha is assumed to be 20,000 B.C. (but other values can of course be tried). We can not calculate for the corresponding atomic time, however, because it's minus infinity. No problem, because orbital time is going to be increased with just one day at a time. Calculation defines what comes out for the atomic time - in years - corresponding with those orbital days. If the program is executed, then the outcome is:
Creation in gravitation time :   20000 year B.C.
year B.C. :  347247  | years : eternal (end of day 0)
year B.C. :  332020  | years :   15226 (end of day 1)
year B.C. :  323113  | years :    8907 (end of day 2)
year B.C. :  316794  | years :    6320 (end of day 3)
year B.C. :  311892  | years :    4902 (end of day 4)
year B.C. :  307887  | years :    4005 (end of day 5)
year B.C. :  304501  | years :    3386 (end of day 6)
It is noticed that the end of day 6 corresponds rather accurately with the birth of mankind according to Evolution Theory, namely approximately 300,000 years ago. But that's not all. In the Bible it is read that With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day. (2 Peter 3:8). If we understand this as an order of magnitude, then there is no contradiction too with the outcomes in the second column.

Another exercise, with Maple 8 this time, leads to an alike result. The two clocks - atomic time and orbital time together - are flexible enough to account for (sort of) an astronomic time scale and (sort of) a creationist time scale "at the same time". We took the freedom (again) to identify Atomic time with the Astronomical time scale and Orbital time with the Creationist time scale. It is expected that neither of the parties will object to this choice. All numbers are expressed in years. We have made an educated guess (= trial and error) for the age in Orbital time, in such a way that the beginning of the first creation day shall correspond with the commonly accepted age of the earth, which is $\approx 4.543$ billion years ago. Alas, it doesn't turn out that the earth was created $6,000$ before Christ. Instead we find $\approx 182.3$ million years B.C.

> age := 1.823*10^8;
> day := 1/365.242199;
> for i from 1 to 8 do
> milne[i] := age*ln(i*day/age);
> end do;
> for i from 1 to 7 do
> era[i] := milne[i+1]-milne[i];
> end do;
                       age := 0.1823000000 10

                        day := 0.002737909263
                    milne[1] := -0.4543230455 10
                    milne[2] := -0.4416869724 10
                    milne[3] := -0.4342953434 10
                    milne[4] := -0.4290508993 10
                    milne[5] := -0.4249829924 10
                    milne[6] := -0.4216592703 10
                    milne[7] := -0.4188491034 10
                    milne[8] := -0.4164148262 10
                      era[1] := 0.126360731 10
                       era[2] := 0.73916290 10
                       era[3] := 0.52444441 10
                       era[4] := 0.40679069 10
                       era[5] := 0.33237221 10
                       era[6] := 0.28101669 10
                       era[7] := 0.24342772 10
Astronomic eras of 100 million years are observed here, with orbital days having a duration of only 24 hours. Just to demonstrate that embedding creationism in serious science is possible, in principle. I didn't hopefully suggest that we have succeeded already in doing so. And one other thing should be mentioned that has the potential of spoiling the party altogether.

In the end, time may be as flexible as rubber band, but the order of events is not.